WHAT IS A SPRING?
A spring is a concentrated discharge of groundwater appearing at the ground surface as a current of flowing water.
All springs emanates from ground. Springs are the most conspicuous forms of natural return of groundwater to the surface. They have played many roles in the settlement pattern of villages and towns.
WAYS SPRING FORMS
- Springs mostly occur when a down gradient parts of an aquifer or other water bearing formations are exposed to the surface.
- Springs can also be formed when discontinuity like faults or dykes present hydraulic barriers to groundwater flow, thereby forcing water to flow upward.
- Springs can also be formed where faults causes weak spots in the confining layer.
CLASSIFICATION OF SPRINGS
There are so many ways in which springs can be classified, some of them are;
1. Based on geologic work structure.
2. Magnitude of discharge.
3. Based on the type of aquifers that are found in them.
4. Water characteristics.
5. Chemical characteristics.
6. Based on direction of magnitude.
7. Respect to their topography.
CLASSES OF SPRINGS | HOW SPRINGS HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED
- Depression springs.
- Contact springs.
- Fault springs.
- Artesian springs.
- Solution springs.
- Thermal springs.
DEPRESSION SPRINGS: Are springs which are formed where the ground surface intercept the water table. They are sometimes called TOPOGRAPHIC SPRINGS, this because they are controlled by TOPOGRAPHY.
CONTACT SPRINGS: Are springs which are formed where a permeable rock layer is underlying by a rock with lower permeability.
FAULT SPRINGS: Are springs that are formed when groundwater is being inhibited by a fault line. This is as a result of the fact that the fault block unit forms a regional boundary where groundwater can flow through the surface.
ARTESIAN SPRINGS: Are springs which results from the release of water under pressure from confined aquifers.
SOLUTION SPRINGS: Are springs that are formed by the dissolution of soluble mineral components of rocks, e.g. dolomite, limestone.
THERMAL SPRINGS: Are springs that have unusual temperature. They mostly originate from volcanic/mathematic sources, some can be cold. Examples; Nigeria Ikogosi thermal/warm springs, Ezeagu springs.