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2019/2020 EBSU GEOLOGY PAST QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (FIRST SEMESTER)

EBSU GEX Past Question First Semester
EBSU GEX Past Question First Semester (CREDIT: Okoro Daniel O.)

COURSE CODE: GEX 101.
COURSE TITLE: EARTH MATERIALS AND HISTORY.
TYPE: FIRST SEMESTER
YEAR: 2019/2020
SCHOOL: EBSU (Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki).
ANSWERED BY: Okoro Daniel O.

Questions:

1a. What is Geology?

1b. Explain concisely at least five aspects of Geology.

1c. Explain at least three importance of the study of Geology.

2a. What is a mineral?

2b. Geologically, crude is not a mineral. Explain.

2c. Mention at least six rock forming minerals you know.

3a. What is silicon tetrahedron?

3b. Briefly discuss the silicate structures.

3c. Mention the major components of the Solar System.

4. With an appropriate diagram, explain briefly the concept of the “rock cycle”.

5. Describe the Bowen’s reaction series. Use relevant illustrations.

6. Use appropriate illustration to give the main cross sections in the Earth, and list the composition of each section.

ANSWERS | SOLUTIONS.

EBSU GEX Past Question First Semester
EBSU GEX Past Question First Semester (CREDIT: Okoro Daniel O.)

1a. What is Geology?

Answer: Geology is a science that deals with study of earth and the processes that formed it.

1b. Explain concisely at least five aspects of Geology.

HYDROGEOLOGY

Is the branch of Geology that deals with the study of ground water resources, their occurrences, development, movements, chemistry and their flow pattern.

Hydrogeology is wide, same goes for its career opportunities.

GEOPHYSICS

Is the branch of Geology that deals with physical theories or the principle of physics to study Geology or to state geological problems.

The study of Geophysics have simplify the study of Geology because it gives geological information that is used in the study of Geology.

SEDIMENTOLOGY

Is the study of sediments in Geology. Sedimentology is concerned with the study of processes by which sedimentary rocks are formed, description, classification and origin of the sedimentary facies.

PALEONTOLOGY

Is the branch of Geology that deals with the study of fossils.

ECONOMY GEOLOGY

Is the aspect of Geology that deals with study of value, the occurrences and prospects of solid minerals.

NB: Mineral can be defined as any naturally occurring inorganic solid substance that are crystalline and has both physical and chemical properties.

STRATIGRAPHY

Is the branch of Geology that deals with the formation, composition, sequence and co-relation of stratified rocks. In a short form, it is the study of rock sediments and how they (the rocks) are layered.
Study of Stratigraphy helps one to understand the order and timing of events in Earth’s history. It as well provides the framework that allows one to interpret sedimentary rocks in term of dynamic evolving environment.

Click here for more detailed explanation of Geology and Branches, career opportunities.

1c. Explain at least three importance of the study of Geology.

  1. Discovers resources that are essential in running modern society and its survival: To manufacture modern technologies like cell phones, personal computers, DVDs, televisions, and other gadgets, some elements of the earth are needed.
  2. Study the processes that shape the Earth: Certain factors such as volcanoes, earthquakes, floods, and so on help in shaping the earth.
  3. Mining: Groundwater, oils, natural gases as well as rocks which contain valuable minerals are studied by geologists.
  4. Study of the earth: Every material and process that makes up the earth, as well as everything we need to know about the earth – history, evolution, creation, and so on come from the study of the earth.
  5. All construction projects that are carried out in this life – road, bridge, dam, building, and so on, all require some geologic studies: This will help to determine the level of slope stability, drainage, contamination from previous use, and also susceptibility to different geologic hazards like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and so on.
  6. Through copious field training, you will be able to develop some skills like creativity and observations: If you are one of the people who love to travel and engage in outdoor activities, then, you might consider geology because geology is mostly found outside.
  7. Geologists enjoy solving puzzles and can think inductively. They are great at spatial thinking and have good organizational skills. With complete information, they can work out a problem or even think out of the box if the available information is incomplete. The mental abilities utilized by geologists are more learned than they are inherent. With constant practice and application, you are going to develop these skills. And they are part of what makes you a great geologist.

2a. What is a mineral?

Mineral can be defined as any naturally occurring inorganic solid substance that are crystalline and has both physical and chemical properties.

2b. Geologically, crude is not a mineral. Explain.

Is Crude a mineral?
The answer is; NO! Crude is not a mineral. Why? Because it is not crystalline.

2c. Mention at least six rock forming minerals you know.

  • Feldspars (Feldspar Group).
  • Pyroxenes (Pyroxene Group).
  • Amphiboles (Amphibole Group)
  • Quartz (Quartz Group).
  • Micas (Mica Group).
  • Silicates (Silicate Group).
  • Non-Silicate (Non-Silicate Group).
  • Olivine (Olivine Group).
  • Calcite (Calcite Group).
  • Garnet (Garnet Group).

3a. What is silicon tetrahedron?

Silicon tetrahedron is a very strong and stable combination that easily links up together in minerals, sharing oxygen at their corners.

3b. Briefly discuss the silicate structures.

  1. Iso Silicate / Isolated Silicate: 
  2. Meso Silicate:
  3. Soro Silicate:
  4. Cryo / Ring Silicate:
  5. Ino Silicate (divided into: Single and Double Chain): Inosilicate, formerly called metasilicate, any of a class of inorganic compounds that have structures characterized by silicate tetrahedrons (each of which consists of a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron) arranged in chains.
  6. Sheet Silicate / Phyllo Silicate:
  7. Tecto Silicate / Framework Silicate:

3c. Mention the major components of the Solar System.

  • Sun
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupitar
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune

4. With an appropriate diagram, explain briefly the concept of the “rock cycle”.

Concept of rock cycle
Credit: geol.umd.edu/

 

Concept of rock cycle
Credit: www.thoughtco.com

5. Describe the Bowen’s reaction series. Use relevant illustrations.

Bowen's reaction series
Credit: geologyin.com

 

Bowen's reaction series
Credit: pages.uoregon.edu

6. Use appropriate illustration to give the main cross sections in the Earth, and list the composition of each section.

Cross section of the earth
Credit: prd-wret.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com

 

Cross section of the earth
Credit: researchgate.net
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